This Article reflects on the codes of conduct the United States has devised, and has improvised, during the last ten years of the Twilight War. As the polemics have subsided and policies are regularized for the long haul, I focus only on two major issues—codes for interrogating enemy captives and the code for defining the enemy. As “legal realists” have observed, legal doctrines rarely emerge from classrooms and often not even from courts. This is then a personal history of how these legal policies took shape and evolved. But one of the most important insights to take away from this historical episode was that the advocates for the radically new codes of conduct framed the issue as a legal question—substantively and bureaucratically. Instead of framing the question around what “should” be done, carefully inventorying prior U.S. and foreign experience in detention practices and interrogations and analyzing all the pros and cons, the issue was debated as one of what “can” be done. If it does nothing else, this episode should reveal the dangers implicit in this habit of thought.
The Essay also underscores the policy and even management value of well-defined, politically sustainable guidelines for secret operations to kill enemies and deal with captives. Because the government must entrust intelligence operatives with exceptional power, a fundamental social contract forms. Such a social contract is an essential foundation to granting intelligence agencies and military departments, with thousands of employees conducting many operations around the world, extraordinary powers to intercept communications, break laws in other countries, and even use lethal force to defend the country—all in secret. When the contract is broken, trust breaks down and all sides will lose.
An essential element of the theory of retribution has been missing from courts’ and legal scholars’ analyses. While they have outlined a number of varieties of the theory and fleshed out their nuances, courts and scholars have largely neglected to examine which harms flowing from a criminal offender’s conduct should be considered in determining that offender’s desert. The more remote harms caused by an offender’s conduct, such as the effects of his offenses on the families and friends of their victims or the effects of criminal conduct on society in general, are pervasive in communities across the nation. This Article takes a first look at this overlooked issue of the role that more remote harms should play in sentencing and asserts that accounting for these more remote harms under certain conditions would better reflect the basic tenets of harm-based retributivism—the theory at the heart of many sentencing schemes. The Article acknowledges some of the concerns that considering these harms raises and argues that a proximate causation analysis is essential to limit the harms considered in sentencing while acknowledging the full array of harms caused by criminal conduct. This notion of “proximate retribution” is necessary to rein in criminal liability under the theory.
Across numerous areas of the law—including family law, criminal law, labor law, health law, and other fields—when children are involved, maturity determinations are pivotal to outcomes. Upon reaching maturity, however defined, an individual has access to a range of rights not previously available and is expected to fulfill certain duties. Despite the central importance of maturity, the law’s approach to it has been to consider the concept of maturity in a piecemeal and issue-specific fashion. The result is a legal construct of maturity that is anything but consistent or coherent. For example, every state has a minimum age below which a child is considered not mature enough to consent to sex. However, if money is involved, more than forty states deem that child mature enough to have consented to sex for money and be charged with the crime of prostitution (even if the money is paid to a pimp and the child never sees it). This Article seeks to undertake a holistic assessment of the law’s approach to maturity.
Markers of maturity in the law frequently occur at different points in time. An examination of key indicators of maturity under the law reveals that the law is inconsistent, not only across issues but also within the same issues. Children are deemed mature enough to participate in the polity (e.g., vote) at a different age from when they are deemed mature enough to exercise independent economic power (e.g., work or contract), control their own bodies (e.g., engage in consensual sex), or assume adult social responsibilities (e.g., drink alcohol in public places).
In short, the law provides little clear guidance on how maturity should be understood and treated. Recent research on brain development and the work of cognitive psychologists provide some answers. To date, however, a significant consideration has been largely overlooked—cultural conceptions of maturity. Thus, this Article seeks to bring cultural perspectives on maturity into the dialogue. Ultimately, this Article aims to bring some clarity to the issue of maturity and examine whether cultural practices can inform the legal, policy, and moral questions in the law’s approach to maturity.
The death knell for print journalism has tolled ominously for fifteen years. Although newspapers have been the source of daily news for most of the world since the early seventeenth century, the immediate and widespread acceptance of the Internet and online news has likely sounded the inevitable end for newspapers. This is evidenced by the radical decline in newspaper revenues, which has caused many newspapers to go out of business and others to cut their staffs significantly.
Newspaper companies contend they are losing business to news “aggregators” who do not expend resources gathering and reporting the news, and instead distill a newspaper’s newly published content and republish it on their own websites. Consumers may then read the stories on aggregators’ websites, rather than the newspaper’s website. Several commentators and the Federal Trade Commission have suggested that the “hot news” doctrine be used to prevent the further decay of the print journalism industry, and the Second Circuit Court of Appeals recently reaffirmed the survival of the hot news tort in Barclays Capital Inc. v. Theflyonthewall.com.
This Comment argues that because the hot news doctrine provides the originator of factual information with the exclusive right to disseminate that information, the doctrine is incompatible with traditional intellectual property law and the First Amendment. As consumers and advertisers turn to the Internet for interest-focused content, the doctrine will not protect newspapers from facing financial difficulty. It, therefore, does not justify the restraint it places on the dissemination of truthful information. The potential exists for drastically better journalism in the digital world because the consumer can interact, comment, and seek out the information that is of interest to him. The courts should not hinder this development by providing newspapers with rights that were never meant to be within their power.
According to pollution-haven hypothesizers, as environmental regulations increase in First World countries and raise costs of production, pollution-intensive industries will migrate into developing countries with less-stringent regulation. This occurrence is also known as the “race to the bottom” or “industrial flight.” The result is an ironic causal chain where developed countries’ measures on behalf of sustainability become a catalyst for the exploitation of lesser protected areas and peoples.
There is much reason to believe that environmental regulation will increase in the developed world, particularly in the United States, exacerbating the potential for industrial flight and its resultant scenarios. Added attention to global warming and other environmental issues continue to spur the adoption of new regulations and standards that industries must adhere to. Resultantly, businesses worry about the effect of mounting controls on their market competition. The fear is that many corporations will move their operations overseas to countries that prioritize the benefit of economic development over the cost of environmental degradation.
While there is a heavy amount of literature on industrial flight, international environmental injustice, and redress for environmental harms, much less exists that ties these concepts together. Additionally, recent developments merit an update into the examples and obstacles of the subject. This Comment will thus provide a comprehensive investigation of pollution havens from their originating circumstances to their resulting environmental atrocities and discuss the limitations of recovery for foreign victims, as well as potential solutions to these problems.
In 1990 the Fourth Circuit held that the copyright misuse doctrine constitutes a valid affirmative defense against claims of infringement. This doctrine prohibits copyright holders from impermissibly expanding the scope of their copyrights. However, the courts have been hesitant to allow this defense in situations where copyright holders license primarily to restrict resale of copyrighted software or to prohibit third-party use of software licensed to a customer, even for general computer-servicing purposes such as trouble shooting and software maintenance. This Comment reviews the purpose of the copyright misuse doctrine and its application by the Federal Appellate Courts. It argues that in two specific scenarios the copyright misuse doctrine should be a viable defense against claims of copyright infringement.
The first scenario occurs when a copyright holder licenses its software primarily to restrict resale in the secondary market. Such licenses are simply sales disguised as licenses. Moreover, they exclusively benefit the copyright holder and entirely disregard the primary policy behind copyright law of securing for the public the benefits derived from the copyright worked. If all copyright holders began utilizing these types of licenses it could very easily lead to the demise of secondary markets, such as used book and software stores.
The second scenario occurs when a copyright holder prevents third parties from servicing a customer’s computer using software licensed to the customer. Such practices risk giving copyright holders an absolute monopoly on the service market associated with their software. While copyright law encompasses many rights, control of the service market for the copyrighted work is not one of these rights.